Ted S. Gross, Ph.D.



P: 206.897.5604
F: 206.897.5611 


Post-Doc University of Calgary - Joint Disease (1995)
Ph.D. SUNY Stony Brook - Mechanical Engineering (1993)
M.S. Penn State University - Sport Biomechanics (1985)
B.S. Trinity U., Texas - Engineering Science (1983)


Research Interests

My most recent areas of research interest are: 1) developing strategies to make low magnitude mechanical loading osteogenic, 2) the linkage between muscle homeostasis and bone homeostasis, 3) osteocyte hypoxia as a potential signal mediator of osteoclastogenesis, and 4) the role of muscle function in fracture healing.  


Current Academic Appointments

Professor and Director
Orthopaedic Science Laboratories, Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington (2007 to Present)

Adjunct Professor
Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington (2007 to Present)

Associate Member
Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington (2004 to Present)



Borelli Award, American Society of Biomechanics (2016)
Editorial Board, Journal of Orthopaedic Research (2015-17)
Fellow, American Society of biomechanics (2012)
President Elect, President, Past-President, American Society of Biomechanics (2004-07)
Editorial Board, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2004-2010)
Secretary-Treasurer, American Society of Biomechanics (2001-2004)
Journal of Biomechanics Award, American Society of Biomechanics (2001)
Sigvard T. Hansen, Jr. Endowed Chair in Orthopaedic Traumatology (2000)
Young Scientist Award, American Society of Biomechanics (1996)
New Investigator Recognition Award, Orthopaedic Research Society (1994)
Arthritis Society/Medical Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993-95)
Alberta Heritage Medical Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993-95)
University of Calgary Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993)


Recent Publications

  1. Ausk BJ, Gross TS, Bain SD. Botulinum Toxin-induced Muscle Paralysis Inhibits Heterotopic Bone Formation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Sep;473(9):2825-30. doi: 10.1007/s11999-015-4271-4. PubMed PMID: 25804882; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4523519.
  2. Srinivasan S, Ausk BJ, Bain SD, Gardiner EM, Kwon RY, Gross TS. Rest intervals reduce the number of loading bouts required to enhance bone formation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 May;47(5):1095-103. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000509. PubMed PMID: 25207932; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4368504.
  3. Avin KG, Bloomfield SA, Gross TS, Warden SJ. Biomechanical aspects of the muscle-bone interaction. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2015 Feb;13(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11914-014-0244-x. Review. PubMed PMID: 25515697; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4306629.
  4. Recidoro AM, Roof AC, Schmitt M, Worton LE, Petrie T, Strand N, Ausk BJ, Srinivasan S, Moon RT, Gardiner EM, Kaminsky W, Bain SD, Allan CH, Gross TS, Kwon RY. Botulinum toxin induces muscle paralysis and inhibits bone regeneration in zebrafish. J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Nov;29(11):2346-56. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2274. PubMed PMID: 24806738; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5108653.
  5. Worton LE, Kwon RY, Gardiner EM, Gross TS, Srinivasan S. Enhancement of Flow-Induced AP-1 Gene Expression by Cyclosporin A Requires NFAT-Independent Signaling in Bone Cells. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2014 Jun 1;7(2):254-265. doi: 10.1007/s12195-014-0321-3. PubMed PMID: 25484988; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4255985.
  6. Srinivasan S, Threet D, Worton LE, Ausk BJ, Bain SD, Gardiner EM, Kwon RY, Gross TS. Distinct cyclosporin a doses are required to enhance bone formation induced by cyclic and rest-inserted loading in the senescent skeleton. PLoS One.2014;9(1):e84868. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084868. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24404194; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3880323.
  7. Ausk BJ, Huber P, Srinivasan S, Bain SD, Kwon RY, McNamara EA, Poliachik SL, Sybrowsky CL, Gross TS. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss in the tibia following transient muscle paralysis are spatiotemporally distinct resorption events.Bone. 2013 Dec;57(2):413-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 24063948; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3865853.
  8. Callegari A, Coons ML, Ricks JL, Yang HL, Gross TS, Huber P, Rosenfeld ME, Scatena M. Bone marrow- or vessel wall-derived osteoprotegerin is sufficient to reduce atherosclerotic lesion size and vascular calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Nov;33(11):2491-500. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301755. Epub 2013 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 23990207.
  9. Nguyen HM, Ruppender N, Zhang X, Brown LG, Gross TS, Morrissey C, Gulati R, Vessella RL, Schimmoller F, Aftab DT, Corey E. Cabozantinib inhibits growth of androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and affects bone remodeling. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78881. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078881. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24205338; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3808282.
  10. Worton LE, Ausk BJ, Downey LM, Bain SD, Gardiner EM, Srinivasan S, Gross TS, Kwon RY. Systems-based identification of temporal processing pathways during bone cell mechanotransduction. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74205. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074205. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24040202; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3770665.
  11. Rubin CT, Seeherman H, Qin YX, Gross TS. The mechanical consequences of load bearing in the equine third metacarpal across speed and gait: the nonuniform distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density. FASEB J.2013 May;27(5):1887-94. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-216804. Epub 2013 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 23355269; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3633814.
  12. Srinivasan S, Gross TS, Bain SD. Bone mechanotransduction may require augmentation in order to strengthen the senescent skeleton. Ageing Res Rev. 2012 Jul;11(3):353-60. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.007. Epub 2012 Jan 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 22240208; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3350758.
  13. Wein MN, Jones DC, Shim JH, Aliprantis AO, Sulyanto R, Lazarevic V, Poliachik SL, Gross TS, Glimcher LH. Control of bone resorption in mice by Schnurri-3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 22;109(21):8173-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1205848109. Epub 2012 May 9. PubMed PMID: 22573816; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3361406.
  14. Moustafa A, Sugiyama T, Prasad J, Zaman G, Gross TS, Lanyon LE, Price JS. Mechanical loading-related changes in osteocyte sclerostin expression in mice are more closely associated with the subsequent osteogenic response than the peak strains engendered. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Apr;23(4):1225-34. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1656-4. Epub 2011 May 15. PubMed PMID: 21573880; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3304063.
  15. Aliprantis AO, Stolina M, Kostenuik PJ, Poliachik SL, Warner SE, Bain SD, Gross TS. Transient muscle paralysis degrades bone via rapid osteoclastogenesis. FASEB J. 2012 Mar;26(3):1110-8. doi: 10.1096/fj.11-196642. Epub 2011 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 22125315; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3289507.
  16. Ausk BJ, Huber P, Poliachik SL, Bain SD, Srinivasan S, Gross TS. Cortical bone resorption following muscle paralysis is spatially heterogeneous. Bone. 2012 Jan;50(1):14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.08.028. Epub 2011 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 21920486; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3243779.